## Friday, April 10, 2009

### Yuki Nagato

Yuki Nagato is a fictional character in the Haruhi Suzumiya light novel series. She is initially portrayed as an introverted, taciturn bibliophile. She is actually an artificial human created by the Integrated Data Entity, and possesses supernatural powers as a result. She joins Haruhi Suzumiya's SOS Brigade in order to observe her on the behalf of the Integrated Data Entity. In addition, she is present to ensure that Haruhi does not use her godlike powers, and aids the other Brigade members in stopping forces that wish her to do so.

## Friday, May 2, 2008

Jimmy Johnson or Jim Johnson may refer to:

Jimmy Johnson (musician), guitarist, producer
Jimmy Johnson (American football) (born 1938), Pro Football Hall of Fame cornerback
Jim Johnson (football coach), Philadelphia Eagles defensive coordinator
Jimmy Johnson (American football coach) (born 1943), former Dallas Cowboys head coach
Jimmy Johnson (bassist)
Jimmy Johnson (cartoonist), creator of Arlo and Janis
Jim Johnson (baseball), MLB pitcher
Jimmie Johnson (born 1975), NASCAR race driver
Jimmie Johnson (American football) (born 1968), American football tight end

## Thursday, May 1, 2008

All people who go by Bill, Billy, Willie, William, Will Smith, or any other variation are listed on this page. For the college in Geneva, New York, William Smith College.

People

William Smith (Medal of Honor) (born 1838, date of death unknown), American Civil War sailor and Medal of Honor recipient
William Smith (Medal of Honor, 1869), American Indian Wars soldier and Medal of Honor recipient
William Danvers Smith, 2nd Viscount Hambleden (1868 – 1928), known as Frederick Smith, was an officer in the British Army
William "Extra Billy" Smith (1797–1887), Governor of Virginia (1846–1849, 1864–1865) and Confederate general
William Farrar Smith, Union Army general
William H. Smith (Medal of Honor), American Indian Wars soldier and Medal of Honor recipient
William Osborne Smith (1833-1887), first Acting Commissioner of the North West Mounted Police
William S. Smith (1755-1816) Revolutionary War Colonel of the Continental Army, leader of a filibuster expedition to Venezuela, first United States Marshall of New York, and United States Congressman.
Sir William Sidney Smith (1764–1840), usually known as Sidney Smith, British admiral
William F. Smith 28 July,1945 Piloted the US Army Air Corps B-25 Billy Mitchell Bomber that crashed into the Empire State Building

## Wednesday, April 30, 2008

For other uses, see Pavlov (disambiguation).
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Russian: Иван Петрович Павлов, September 14, 1849February 27, 1936) was a Russian physiologist, psychologist, and physician. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for research pertaining to the digestive system. Pavlov is widely known for first describing the phenomenon now known as classical conditioning in his experiments with dogs.

Life and research
Pavlov contributed to many areas of physiology, neurology and psychology. Most of his work involved research in temperament, conditioning and involuntary reflex actions.
Pavlov performed and directed experiments on digestion which earned him the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine
Carl Jung continued Pavlov's work on TMI and correlated the observed shutdown types in animals with his own introverted and extroverted temperament types in humans. Introverted persons, he believed, were more sensitive to stimuli and reached a TMI state earlier than their extroverted counterparts. This continuing research branch is gaining the name highly sensitive persons.
William Sargant and others continued the behavioral research in mental conditioning to achieve memory implantation and brainwashing.

## Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Abraham Lincoln was buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois, where a 177-foot-tall granite tomb surmounted with several bronze statues of Lincoln was constructed by 1874. Lincoln's wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, and three of his four sons are also buried there (Robert Todd Lincoln is buried in Arlington National Cemetery).

Exhumation
All 23 of the people who viewed the remains of Mr. Lincoln have long since died. One of the last, a youth of 13 at the time, was Fleetwood Lindley, who died on February 1, 1963. Three days before he died, Mr. Lindley was interviewed. He said, "Yes, his face was chalky white. His clothes were mildewed. And I was allowed to hold one of the leather straps as we lowered the casket for the concrete to be poured. I was not scared at the time but I slept with Lincoln for the next six months."
Another man, George Cashman, also claimed to be the last living person to have viewed the remains of Abraham Lincoln. In the last years of his life, George Cashman was the curator of the National Landmark in Springfield called "Lincoln's Tomb." He particularly enjoyed relating his story to the more than one million visitors to the site each year. Mr. Cashman died in 1979.
His claim concerning the viewing of Abraham Lincoln's remains was later refuted when his wife, Dorothy M. Cashman, wrote a pamphlet entitled "The Lincoln Tomb." On page 14 of "The Lincoln Tomb," Mrs. Cashman writes, "At the time of his death in 1963 Fleetwood Lindley was the last living person to have looked upon Mr. Lincoln's face." In this statement, Cashman's wife admitted her husband was not present at the 1901 exhumation.

## Saturday, April 26, 2008

Equivalent potential temperature, commonly referred to as Theta-e $left( theta_e right)$, is a quantity related to the stability of a column of air in the atmosphere.
θe is the temperature a parcel of air would reach if all the water vapor in the parcel were to condense, releasing its latent heat, and the parcel was brought adiabatically to a pressure of 100 kPa (1000 mbar), roughly equal to atmospheric pressure at sea level. In stable conditions, θe increases with altitude. If θe decreases with height, convection can occur. The comparison of the equivalent potential temperature of parcels of air at different pressures thus provides a measure of the instability of that column of air.

Explanation
Cool air is denser (heavier) than warm air (see Gas laws). Like a ball balanced on top of a hill, denser fluid lying above less dense fluid is dynamically unstable: if cool air is positioned above warm air, the former will sink and the latter will rise, the two volumes of air passing around and through each other, and perhaps mixing to some extent, until a stable condition (with denser fluid below and lighter fluid above) is achieved. The temperature near the ceiling of a room is consistently warmer than that near the floor.
If a stationary fluid is compressible, the criterion for dynamic stability is not simply that denser fluid must lie below light fluid, but that small perturbations must tend to correct themselves. When lower fluid is raised up into upper fluid, (during which process the density of the lower fluid decreases due to the drop in pressure), stability requires that it remain denser than the upper fluid, and therefore be pulled back toward its starting position by gravity. The fluid is unstable if small perturbations tend to amplify themselves, i.e. if dense lower fluid, when displaced upward, expands enough to become lighter than the surrounding upper fluid, and therefore continues to move upward.

Stability
In the atmosphere, where vertical variation in pressure is much larger than in a room, the situation is complicated by adiabatic temperature change: as a parcel of air moves upward, the ambient pressure drops, causing the parcel to expand. Some of the internal energy of the parcel is used up in doing the work required to expand against the atmospheric pressure, so the temperature of the parcel drops, even though it has not lost any heat. Conversely, a sinking parcel is compressed and becomes warmer even though no heat is added.
Air at the top of a mountain is usually colder than the air in the valley below, but the arrangement is not unstable: if a parcel of air from the valley were somehow lifted up to the top of the mountain, when it arrived it would be even colder than the air already there, due to the adiabatic cooling; it would be heavier than the ambient air, and would sink back toward its original position. Similarly, if a parcel of cold mountain-top air were to make the trip down to the valley, it would arrive warmer and lighter than the valley air, and would float back up the mountain.
So cool air lying on top of warm air can be stable after all (as long as the temperature decrease with height is less than the adiabatic lapse rate); the dynamically important quantity is not the temperature, but the potential temperature: the temperature the air would have if it were brought adiabatically to a reference pressure. The air around the mountain is stable because the air at the top, due to its lower pressure, has a higher potential temperature than the warmer air below.

Water vapor
The formula for θe is the following:
$theta_e = T_e left( frac{p_0}{p} right)^frac{R_d}{c_p} approx left( T + frac {L_v}{c_{p}} r right) left( frac{p_0}{p} right)^frac{R_d}{c_p}$
Where:

Te = equivalent temperature
T = Temperature of air at pressure p
p = pressure at the point (in same units as p0)
p0 = standard reference pressure (1000 mbar or 100 kPa)
Rd = specific gas constant for air (287 J/(kg·K))
cp = specific heat of dry air at constant pressure (1004 J/(kg·K))
Lv = latent heat of evaporation (2400 kJ/kg {at 25 °C} to 2600 kJ/kg {at −40 °C})

M K Yau and R.R. Rogers, Short Course in Cloud Physics, Third Edition, published by Butterworth-Heinemann, January 1, 1989, 304 pages. EAN 9780750632157 ISBN 0-7506-3215-1

## Friday, April 25, 2008

Edgewater is a north Chicago, Illinois, community seven miles north of downtown bordering the neighborhoods of Rogers Park to the north, Uptown to the south, Lincoln Square to the west and south and West Ridge to the west and north. As one of Chicago's 77 community areas, Edgewater is bounded by Foster on the south, Devon on the north, Ravenswood on the west, and Lake Michigan on the east. Edgewater contains several beaches that residents enjoy in the warm months. Historically, Edgewater was once part of Lake View Township, an independent, self-governing suburb of Chicago.
Edgewater has the highest population density of any of the neighborhoods in Chicago. Also, affirming the reputation of Lakeview and its Lake View East Boystown enclave as being a center of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender culture, the zip code 60640, one of two zip codes in Edgewater (the other being 60660), has the highest concentration of gay and lesbian couples in the city, and fifth highest in the country.
Edgewater was first developed around the 1890s as a summer home for Chicago's elite. With the exception of pockets acknowledged as historic districts (like the Bryn Mawr Historic District), Edgewater (actually, Edgewater Beach) boasts a skyline of apartment buildings, condominium complexes, and mid-rise homes. Edgewater Beach is highlighted by two main corridors: North Winthrop Avenue and North Kenmore Avenue to Loyola University Chicago. Winthrop and Kenmore are rehabilitated areas with homes touched up to harken back to Edgewater's glory days.

Andersonville
Bryn Mawr Historic District
Edgewater
Edgewater Glen
Epic
Lakewood/Balmoral History
Developers began cutting down the dense woods in the area in the late 1880s to make way for future development. In 1885, Edgewater was given its name by its builder, John Lewis Cochran. He built the first residential subdivision in the area. After a few years, Edgewater was celebrated as a wonder as it became "the only electric lighted suburb adjacent to Chicago". Edgewater also gained fame as the celery-growing capital of America's Midwest.

Early settlers
In the early 1900s, Edgewater was regarded as one of Chicago's most prestigious communities. A prominent symbol of Edgewater's affluence was the Edgewater Beach Hotel, which opened in 1916 at 5349 North Sheridan. The famed pink hotel was demolished in 1968, though the remaining pink Edgewater Beach Apartments building is still a landmark at the north tip of Lake Shore Drive. The Edgewater building boom peaked in 1926 and property values reached their height in 1928. The burgeoning affluent population grew so much that developers expanded Edgewater and renamed a portion of the neighborhood community Uptown (which still exists today).

The turn of the century
Uptown's population declined in the 1950s as Chicago's suburbs were developed and opened, absorbing Chicago's middle and upper classes. With the flight of residents came disrepair and high crime rates for what once was one of the most affluent districts of Chicago.
In the 1980s, the Chicago Board of Aldermen and local business owners orchestrated a revival for the Edgewater community. Edgewater seceded from the Uptown community and once again called itself its own community. New businesses were brought into the community, old buildings were refurbished and homes touched up to harken back to Edgewater's past.

Revival
An unexpected influx of gay and lesbian residents has recently moved in and land values have skyrocketed. The community now boasts one of the largest gay and lesbian populations in the United States.
Kathy Osterman Beach (more commonly referred to as Hollywood Beach - named after Hollywood Ave where it is situated) is a hugely popular hangout for gay men and lesbians during the summer months.

Gay and lesbian community
The highrise condominiums that line Sheridan Rd. and the Lake were known to have large numbers of retired and elderly persons, many living on fixed incomes. The prices have been more affordable than Lake Shore Drive addresses farther south. Meanwhile, Kenmore and Winthrop streets a couple blocks west suffered in mixed conditions of poverty and crime that were a far cry from their prior prestige. Recognizing the value of lakefront living and access to the Red Line elevated train, an influx of new residents arrived. Many of Edgewater's new residents are from Africa and the former Yugoslavia. The area has a great density of Bosnian, Serb and Croat residents. These people, troubled by civil war and tough conditions in their homeland, have been encouraged to settle in the area. The city is known for accepting new, thriving enclaves of ethnicities in centuries past. This new settlement of Europeans is a modern revival of that tradition.
Meanwhile, Edgewater is also home to a large African community. Ethnic Ethiopians, newly independent Eritreans, and Nigerians live and socialize in Edgewater. Due to increased restrictions on the industry, taxis must park on main (non-residential) streets or spots with meters. Consequently, Broadway is often full of taxis parked there by their African immigrant operators. (The African community also extends farther north into the Rogers Park and Loyola University areas.) Walk the streets of Edgewater and one will mix with women in traditional African dress and Serbian grandmothers strolling with their grandchildren while the middle generation is out making a living in the new world of Chicago.
Native Americans, former Yugoslavians, Africans of every part, young hipsters, new parents, first-time homeowners, students and many more make their home in Edgewater.
Devon Avenue (pronounced somewhat like "De-VAHN") marks the northern boundary of Edgewater. Devon reflects the ethnic diversity of the Rogers Park community.

Neighborhoods
Andersonville is a neighborhood (located in the Edgewater community area) on the North Side of Chicago, about five miles (8 km) north-northwest of the city's downtown. Once a sleepy little village made up primarily of Swedish immigrants, Andersonville is now one of Chicago's most popular neighborhoods. The community is particularly known for its diversity, including a continued Swedish cultural presence led by the Swedish American Museum, the Swedish Bakery and other Swedish delicatessens. A significant number of Middle-Eastern businesses, a new influx of families with children, and a large gay and especially lesbian population also makes this a very diverse population (showcased in the 1994 lesbian themed movie Go Fish). It is also known for its unique commercial district, made up almost entirely of locally owned, independent shops, restaurants, cafes, taverns, a chocolatier, and service providers.
The approximate street boundaries of Andersonville are Magnolia Avenue to the east, Ravenswood Avenue to the west, Winnemac Avenue to the south, and Victoria Street to the north. The heart of the Andersonville commercial district is the corner of Clark and Foster (5200 North Clark).
The main shopping street is North Clark Street, which runs roughly north-south. The stretch of North Clark Street south of West Foster Avenue (where Andersonville has expanded across community boundaries into northern Uptown) is sometimes called South Foster, or SoFo. Some maps show the entire stretch between Foster and Lawrence as Andersonville Terrace; although this name is seldom used by residents, realtors have recently started using it again for the area as far south as Argyle Street, in an attempt to capitalize on Andersonville's popularity. The stretch north of Bryn Mawr still retains a good number of Hispanic-owned business as well as some restaurants and cafes serving Andersonville's more recent transplants.
As reported in the Chicago Reader, in 2006 merchants along North Clark Street have seen significant increases in commercial property taxes, causing these independent shops to struggle. Though the residential property taxes have risen in the area, they have not skyrocketed like the commercial district in downtown Andersonville.